SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF CITIES: RATING ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY AND RISK ANALYSIS (USING KAZAKHSTAN AS AN EXAMPLE)
Keywords:sustainable development, urbanisation, sustainable city, economic sustainability, social sustainability, environmental sustainability, factors of sustainable city development, sustainable development rating of cities, sustainability risks
World experience shows that in the context of the increase in urbanisation, the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals largely depends on the sustainability of cities. It was hypothesised that big cities in Kazakhstan are more stable than medium-sized cities and single-industry towns. The study aims to develop a modified rating assessment methodology for sustainable development of cities and test it using cities in Kazakhstan as an example in order to develop tools for planning and monitoring the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals taking into account country specifics. To this end, such methods as generalisation, concretisation, economic and statistical, factorial and comparative analysis, ranking, and mapping were used. A modified methodology for rating assessment of sustainable development of cities based on social, economic, environmental factors was proposed. The method for the mapping of sustainable development risks was utilised. The research substantiated the criteria and typology of risks of sustainable urban development, which can be adapted to country-specific circumstances. The possibility of its use was demonstrated on the example of different types and categories of cities in Kazakhstan. The study was limited due to the inaccessibility of statistical data, especially for small towns and single-industry towns. The obtained results can be used to simulate and monitor the implementation of socio-economic programmes in cities of Kazakhstan and other countries. The research findings can be used as the basis for mechanisms and tools intended to make decisions by authorities to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals and develop sustainable cities.
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