Characteristics of Population Reproduction in the Ural North
Keywords:North and Arctic, Ural North, demographic processes, population reproduction, age structure, coronavirus, pandemic, morbidity, supermortality, cyclicity
Numerous studies have been examining the influence of coronavirus on economic and demographic indicators of various countries and regions in the period 2020 - 2021. However, little attention is paid to the consequences of the Covid-19 pandemic for Northern and Arctic regions. This study aims to identify the characteristics of population reproduction in the northern oil and gas regions and consider factors affecting the morbidity and mortality from Covid-19 in the post-Soviet and coronavirus periods. In particular, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug — Yugra (KhMAO) and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (YaNAO), the Northern and Arctic regions of the Ural Federal District, were examined. The methods of retrospective and statistical analysis, aggregation, grouping, averaging and analogy approaches were utilised. In most regions and subregions of the Russian North and Arctic, with the exception of KhMAO and YaNAO, a gradual decrease in the population was observed. In 2020, mortality among patients with Covid-19 in the Ural North was lower than the national average, while the proportion of infected people to total population, on the contrary, was higher. This can be explained by the lower proportion of elderly in Yugra and YaNAO compared to other Russian regions. The research demonstrated that the mortality and birth rates in the most reproductive groups (people aged 20-29 and 30-39) were not affected by the Covid-19 pandemic. The main risk group is the older population aged 60-65 and over, determining the rate and number of deaths from coronavirus. The statistical analysis confirmed the existence of an eight-month cycle of Covid-19 waves from the lowest point to the peak. Future studies will focus on assessing the consequences of the pandemic for the population of the Arctic region at the municipal level
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