Consumer Purchasing Behaviour during the COVID-19 Epidemic: A Case Study for Poland
Keywords:consumption, coronavirus, COVID-19, households, consumer behaviour, factors determining purchases, health security, rationality of consumer behaviour, factor analysis, confirmatory model
With an increase in COVID-19 cases and introduction of studying and working from home, households have begun to change their priorities in shopping behaviours. The source of the data was a survey conducted at the beginning of April 2020. The aim of the study was: (1) to demonstrate changes in respondents’ behaviour in the purchasing process and (2) to identify factors determining changes in these behaviours. The paper verified that, in the conditions of the pandemic, consumer shopping behaviour focuses on health safety. From a set of variables containing subjective opinions of respondents regarding factors influencing changes in their purchasing habits, dimensional reduction was carried out using factor analysis. Isolated factors were used to model Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The obtained assessments of the quality of the models (Hoelter value, CMIN/DF, RMSEA and others) indicate that the proposed models meet statistical standards and acceptability criteria. The models highlight the following factors: safety when shopping, prudence and a desire to protect health. Therefore, the assumptions were corroborated, according to which in a time of crisis and uncertainty (a pandemic is such a time), psychological factors and assumptions of behavioural theories are gaining in importance. This paper aims to complement existing research. The data obtained from the survey concern the level and frequency of expenditure on different product groups. Previous research has focused primarily on the impact of the pandemic on the economic situation. This document focuses on non-economic factors determining changes in consumer behaviour.
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